From UNL Wiki
Valency is a category that indicates the number of syntactic arguments required by any predicate.
In the UNLarium framework, valency may assume the following values:
- Verb valency and transitivity
- Verb valency is related, though not identical, to verb transitivity. Valency includes all arguments (including the subject) whereas transitivity includes only objects.
- rain = intransitive and monovalent (VAL1)
- llover (es = rain) = intransitive and avalent (VAL0)
- run = unergative (intransitive) and monovalent (VAL1)
- Non-verbal valency
- Nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions also have valency, which is related to the number of (internal) arguments they require.
- beauty (noun) = avalent (VAL0)
- beautiful (adjective) = avalent (VAL0)
- beautifully (adverb) = avalent (VAL0)
- arrival = monovalent (VAL1) (arrival of someone)
- loyal = monovalent (VAL1) (loyal to someone or to something)
- differently = monovalent (VAL1) (differently from something)
- in = monovalent (VAL1) (in someplace)
- Elliptical objects
- In the UNLarium framework, objects are to be considered elliptical (hidden) in verbal constructions if they can be inferred from the context.
- I read the book = I read all the afternoon = divalent (VAL2) (no significant semantic change)
- John kissed Mary = John kisses well = divalent (VAL2) (no significant semantic change)
- John bought a car = John buys (and Peter sells) = divalent (VAL2) (no significant semantic change)
- Different valency values mean different senses
- In the UNLarium framework, the same verb may have different valency values, but only when associated to different UWs:
- John lives in Paris = monovalent (VAL1) (live = reside)
- John lives a nightmare = divalent (VAL2) (live = experience)
- Objects (essential) are not to be confounded with adjuncts (accidental)
- John bought a car to Mary = divalent (VAL2) and not trivalent (VAL3)
- avalent: house, sad, now
- avalent: llover (es), chover (pt) (= rain) (null subject verbs in non-pro-drop languages)
- monovalent: construction, interested, contrarily, run, fall, sleep;
- divalent: buy, sell, go
- trivalent: give
In UNL, valency, as a syntactic category, is not to be represented.