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FoR-UNL (Framework of Reference for UNL) is a guideline used to describe achievements of natural languages in relation to UNL. It was inspired by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and its main goal is to provide a method for assessing the availability and quality of natural language resources inside the UNL System.

Reference Levels

The FoR-UNL classifies languages in three broad divisions which can be divided into six levels, according to the recall and precision of the corresponding resources:

  • A - Basic Level
    • A1 - Breakthrough or beginner
    • A2 - Waystage or elementary
  • B - Intermediate Level
    • B1 - Threshold or intermediate
    • B2 - Vantage or upper intermediate
  • C - Advanced Level
    • C1 - Effective Operational
    • C2 - Mastery


The descriptors below inform what is required for a language to be classified in each level:

Level Dictionary
(base forms)
A1 5,000 Morphology: NP
A2 10,000 Morphology: others
B1 20,000 Syntax: NP
B2 40,000 Syntax: VP
C1 70,000 Syntax: IP
C2 100,000 Syntax: CP


In order to achieve the results above, each language must observe the following procedures[1]. Each level is a prerequisite for the next (A2 is not open before A1 is finished, and so on):