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The UGO (Universal Generation cOrpus) aims at defining the standards for fully-automatic sentence-driven NLization.



The project UGO has two main goals:

  1. To provide a translation memory from UNL to natural language, in order to be used for inducing UNL>NL grammars; and
  2. To provide standards for fully-automatic sentence-driven NLization, to be used as the parameter for evaluating the precision of UNL>NL grammars.


UGO is a repository of UNL graphs depicting basic structures of UNL. It is divided into 6 different subprojects according to the following criteria:

Repository # of entries Description
UGO-A1 250 simple NP's
UGO-A2 250 simple VP's
UGO-B1 250 complex NP's
UGO-B2 250 complex VP's
UGO-C1 250 full sentences
UGO-C2 250 full sentences


UGO is open to all languages[1] complying with following requisites:

  • UGO-A1 does not have any pre-requisite;
  • UGO-A1 and CORNELIA-A1 are requisites for UGO-A2;
  • UGO-A2 and CORNELIA-A2 are requisites for UGO-B1;
  • UGO-B1 and CORNELIA-B1 are requisites for UGO-B2;
  • UGO-B2 and CORNELIA-B2 are requisites for UGO-C1;
  • UGO-C1 and CORNELIA-C1 are requisites for UGO-C2;

In order to join UGO, users are expected to have CUP250 and CUP500


In UGO, users are expected to map UNL graphs into natural language sentences. This process must take into consideration the following:

  • The NLization is the generation, to the target language, of the information conveyed by the UNL graph. It defines the expected output of UNL in natural language, and will be used to measure the precision of UNL>NL grammars. The NLization must comply with the principles below:
  • The NLization must convey all and only the information available in the UNL graph, i.e., the NLization must not add or suppress any information;
  • The NLization must be a grammatical sentence of the target language, i.e., it should be syntactically and semantically well-formed;
  • The NLization must belong to the standard variety of the target language, i.e., it should not contain slang, jargon, archaisms, SMS language and other non-standard structures;
  • The NLization must contain punctuation signs only if absolutely necessary or explicitly stated in the UNL graph;
  • A single graph may lead to differnt NLizations, to be provided in separate lines. These may convey different order of constituents, if possible in the target language.


  1. Except English, which was the source for all data