UNL Specs comparison

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Universal Relations

The set of relations has been undergoing some changes throughout the history of UNL. The table below presents the list of relations according to the several UNL Specs.  

RELATION DEFINITION 1996 1.0 1.5 2.0 1998 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 2005 2010
agt agent
and conjunction
ant antonym                  
aoj attributive object
bas basis [1]
ben beneficiary      
cag co-agent [2]
cao co-thing with attribute        
cau cause                    
cnt content  
cob co-object    
con condition
coo co-occurrence [3]
dur duration      
equ synonym    
exp experiencer                  
fld semantic field                  
fmt from-to  
frm origin       [4]
gol goal
icl inclusion    
ins instrument  
iof an instance of    
lpl logical place              
man manner
mat material                  
met method [5]
mod modifier
nam name      
num number                    
obj object
opl objective place
or disjunction
per unit to measure object
plc place      
plf initial place  
plt final place  
pof part-of    
pos possessor    
ppl physical place               [6]
ptn partner
pur purpose
qua quantity
res theme                    
rsn reason      
scn scene       [7]
seq sequential order
shd sentence head                    
smd not semantically related                  
soj stative object                    
src source
tim time
tmf time-from
tmt time-to
to destination       [8]
via intermediate place    


  1. Subsumed by per (measure).
  2. Subsumed by ptn (partner).
  3. Subsumed by dur (duration).
  4. Subsumed by src (source).
  5. Subsumed by ins (instrument).
  6. Replaced by plc (place).
  7. Replaced by lpl (logical place).
  8. Subsumed by gol (goal).