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Scheme is a figure of speech that changes the normal arrangement of words in a sentence's structure. In UNL, schemes are represented by the following attributes:

  • Structures of Balance
    • @parallelism: use of similar structures in two or more clauses
    • @antithesis: juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas
    • @climax: arrangement of words in order of increasing importance
    • @anticlimax: Arrangement of words in order of decreasing importance
  • Changes in Word Order
    • @anacoluthon: change in the syntax within a sentence
    • @anastrophe: inversion of the usual word order
    • @parenthesis: insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentence
    • @apposition: placing of two elements side by side, in which the second defines the first
  • Omission
    • @ellipsis: omission of words
    • @asyndeton: omission of conjunctions between related clauses
    • @brachylogia: omission of conjunctions between a series of words
  • Repetition
    • @alliteration: series of words that begin with the same letter or sound alike
    • @anaphora: repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
    • @anadiplosis: repetition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another
    • @antanaclasis: repetition of a word in two different senses
    • @antimetabole: repetition of words in successive clauses, in reverse order
    • @assonance: repetition of vowel sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse
    • @chiasmus: reversal of grammatical structures in successive clauses
    • @consonance: repetition of consonant sounds without the repetition of the vowel sounds
    • @epanalepsis: repetition of the initial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end of the clause or sentence
    • @pleonasm: Use of superfluous or redundant words
    • @polyptoton: repetition of words derived from the same root
    • @polysyndeton: repetition of conjunctions
    • @symploce: combination of anaphora and epistrophe