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This page provides guidelines for English in the UNL framework.

Adpositions as Universal Relations

As words that connect two other words, adpositions are always represented in UNL as relations:

agt = by
ben = for
dur = during
frm = from
gol = to
ins = with
man = as
met = by
mod = of
opl = in
per = per
plc = in
plf = from
plt = to
pof = of
pos = of
ptn = with
pur = for
scn = in
src = from
tim = in
tmf = since
tmt = until
to = to
via = through

Adpositions as Universal Attributes

Adpositions are also represented as attributes when they assign specific values to general relations. For instance:

the book is in the box
the relation "plc" (place) is sufficient to represent the meaning intended by "in" and no attribute is necessary: plc(book, box)
the book is under the box
the relation "plc" (place) is too generic to represent the meaning intended by "under" and the attribute @under is necessary: plc(book, box.@under)

For the time being, adpositions have been represented by their English correspondents.