From UNL Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Conjunctions are LRUs that connect two other LRUs, phrases or clauses.


Natural Language

In the UNLarium framework, conjunctions are classified as follows

  • coordinating conjunctions (COO) join two or more items of equal syntactic importance ("and", "or", "but");
    • correlative conjunctions (CRC) are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items (both … and, (n)either … (n)or, not (only) … but (also)....);
  • subordinating conjunctions (SCJ) introduce a dependent clause. They are further classified in:
    • Complementizers (CMR) are special subordinating conjunctions that introduce complement clauses ("that" in "I know that he came");
    • Adverbializers (AVR) are special subordinating conjunctions that introduce adverbial clauses ("after" in "I go after you go");
    • Relativizers (RVZ) are special subordinating conjunctions that introduce relative clauses.

Lists of conjunctions


In UNL, conjunctions are explicitly represented by attributes, except in case of complementizers ("if", "that", "whether") or when their semantic value may be inferred from the corresponding relation.

Conjunction attributes

* indicates optional representation

Attribute Value English UNL
@after after The books will be sent to the library after I have read them. tim(send, read.@after)
@although although, even though, though Although they have arrived early they could not enter. seq(enter, arrive.@although)
@and* and, nor, as well as, both... and, neither... nor, not only... but also He sold an apartment and bought a country-house. and(buy, sell.@and) or and(buy, sell)
@as* as The situation is not so bad as you suggest. man(bad, suggest.@as) or man(bad, suggest)
@as.@if as if, as though He gives orders as if he were the master of the house. man(give, master.@as.@if)
@because* because, since, for, as, that He said he cannot go because he is very busy. rsn(go, busy.@because) or rsn(go, busy)
@before before Look before you leap. tim(look, leap.@before)
@but but, yet He is young but sensible. and(sensible.@but, young)
@even.@if even if I intend to go even if it rains. con(go, rain.@even.@if) or con(go, rain.@even)
@except.@if except if I intend to go except if it rains. con(go, rain.@except.@if) or(go, rain.@except)
@if* if If you promise to come, I will wait for you. con(wait, promise.@if) or con(wait, promise)
@if.@only only if Only if you promise to come, I will wait for you. con(wait, promise.@if.@only) or con(wait, promise.@only)
@in_case in case (that) He wears two watches in case one of them stops. rsn(wear, stop.@in_case)
@or* or, either... or, whether... or You must prove that you are right or apologize or(apologize.@or, prove) or or(apologize, prove)
@since* since What have you been doign since I last say you? tmf(do, say.@since) or tmf(do, say)
@so* so, then, so that, that We are late for the train, so we must take a taxi. seq(take, late.@so) or seq(take, late)
@unless unless I shall go unless it rains. con(go, rain.@unless)
@until* until, till Wait until the day breaks. tmt(wait, break.@until) or tmt(wait, break)
@when* when, as When I arrive I will write. tim(write, arrive.@when) or tim(write, arrive)
@whereas* whereas, while You didn`t work yesterday, whereas he worked till midnight. coo(work, work.@whereas) or coo(work, work)
@while* while Remain standing while they sing. dur(stand, sing.@while) or dur(stand, sing)